CEOS and the UNFCCC Global Stocktake

This page provides an entry point for access to the datasets and guidance being developed by CEOS space agencies and partners in support of the goals of the Global Stocktake process of the Paris Climate Agreement.

The Global Stocktake is a fundamental component of the Paris Agreement, being used to monitor its implementation and evaluate the collective progress made in achieving the agreed goals. The Global Stocktake (GST) thus links implementation of nationally determined contributions (NDCs) with the overarching goals of the Paris Agreement, and has the ultimate aim of raising climate ambition. The first GST will take place in 2023.

CO2 & CH4 Fluxes

Regional/global scale products to assess efforts at overall greenhouse gas emission reduction.

Above Ground Biomass

Above ground biomass products: NCEO Africa Biomass, IceSat-2 Boreal Biomass, JPL Global Biomass, GEDI Biomass, ESA CCI Biomass.


Global Forest Watch global tree cover loss generated annually (30 metres). New 5-year epochal global tree height maps, from 2021.


Global Mangrove Watch, mangrove extent and change with spatial resolution of 25 metres and covering eleven annual epochs.


World Cereal prototype global 10 metre crop products for wheat and maize. National pilot products are available for five countries.

Land Cover

Land cover products: WorldCover, CCI, HILDA+, Copernicus annual global land cover service.


The Sentinel-3 World Fire Atlas developed by the European Space Agency utilises Sentinel-3A SLSTR to detect fire and high temperature events on a global scale during nighttime.

User Stories and Inspiration

A new section for 2022 exploring how these datasets have been successfully applied by users and countries.

Systematic Observations of the Earth

Systematic observations of the Earth’s atmosphere and surface from ground-based, airborne and space-based sensors can support both the Mitigation and Adaptation goals of the Paris Agreement.

Direct measurements of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations can be analysed to track GHG trends in their net emissions and removals on spatial scales spanning large urban areas, to nations, to the globe. They also support the development of top-down atmospheric inventories of GHG emissions and removals that can be used to assess the completeness and accuracy of the bottom-up methods used to compile biennial inventory reports.

High spatial resolution observations of land cover type, above-ground biomass and disturbances such as fires, severe weather and climate change can provide direct support for the development of bottom-up emissions inventories for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU).

These data also provide capacity to respond to change rather than simply observing what has happened in the past. They allow us to identify opportunities for improving resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change and fostering low GHG emissions development.
Copernicus Sentinel-2 (EC/ESA)

NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) mission will measure the thickness of ice sheets and sea ice, and tree canopy heights.

Space Agency Response

Recognising these opportunities, CEOS space agencies have embarked on a broad range of activities to support the GST. To demonstrate the utility of systematic Earth observations, a series of pilot products are being developed to support inventory development verification efforts for the 2023 GST:

  • The Joint CEOS/CGMS Working Group on Climate (WGClimate) is developing spatially-resolved global atmospheric budgets of CO2 and CH4, and their changes over time.

  • The CEOS Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Task team has embarked on an effort to identify and harmonise the best available above-ground biomass, forest, land cover, mangrove and agricultural crop products to support bottom-up inventories for the AFOLU sector.
These two efforts are being closely coordinated to develop Earth Observations products that are best suited to complement the Mitigation and Adaptation efforts being carried out by the Parties to the Paris Agreement.

The primary objective of these pilot products is to begin a conversation among the scientific community, national inventory agencies, the UNFCCC and other relevant stakeholders to establish best practices for the joint use of conventional inventories and systematic Earth observations - to produce more complete and accurate estimates of GHG emissions and removals, and to identify opportunities for improving resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change and fostering low GHG emissions development.

The resources on this page provide a single point of access to all the datasets and guidance resulting from these many activities, as a convenient reference for Parties, and for scientific and other users to access, understand and apply the data. Descriptions are provided for each dataset, along with links to the data itself, available user manuals or guidance documentation, and point of contact information is given in each case. Please follow the links above for further details and access to the datasets of interest.