Seismic Hazards Pilot

2D displacement map derived from Sentinel-1 pixel correlation following the 25 April 2015  M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake  and generated by the Remote Sensing Technology Institute of DLR. The Sentinel-1 data allowed to measure a negative range shift of about 0.8 meters, corresponding to a possible uplift of about 1 meter and an azimuth shift on the order of 1.8 meters. This is an absolute measurement derived from Sentinel-1 orbital geometry without any reference point on ground.  Courtesy of DLR.

2D displacement map derived from Sentinel-1 pixel correlation following the 25 April 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and generated by the Remote Sensing Technology Institute of DLR. The Sentinel-1 data allowed to measure a negative range shift of about 0.8 meters, corresponding to a possible uplift of about 1 meter and an azimuth shift on the order of 1.8 meters. This is an absolute measurement derived from Sentinel-1 orbital geometry without any reference point on ground. Courtesy of DLR.

The Seismic Hazards Pilot sets its objectives based on priorities elaborated through consultation with users and practitioners of satellite EO and geohazards. For instance, specialists of remote sensing and risk assessment defined their objectives and EO data requirements through an open review process in the framework of the 2012 International Forum on Satellite Earth Observations (the Santorini report) and Geohazards.

Main Pilot objectives are:
A. Support the generation of globally self-consistent strain rate estimates and the mapping of active faults at the global scale by providing interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and optical data and processing capacities to existing initiatives (wide extent satellite observations)
B. Continue to support the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL) for the seismic hazard activities (satellite observations focused on supersites)
C. Develop and demonstrate advanced science products for rapid earthquake response (observation of earthquakes with low to intermediate magnitude, M>5.8)

The Pilot’s broader CEOS objective is to demonstrate how satellite EO can be used to improve geodetic monitoring of faults and the earthquake cycle, and provide scientific information to support the response to seismic events.

The key successes of the pilot include a range of EO based products and derived publications. In particular a variety of terrain motion mapping products have been published following earthquakes, either in the context of the Geohazard Supersites (Event Supersites) or as part of the pilot’s Objective C). The following seismic events have been investigated using EO data to map the ground deformation and model the seismic source parameters: Greece (Cephalonia)  in January-February 2014,  Nepal (Gorkha)  in April 2015,  Greece (Lefkada) in November 2015, Ecuador (Muisne) in April 2016, Italy (Amatrice, Visso, Norcia)  in August-October 2016 and  New Zealand (Kaikoura) in November 2016 . In the cases of the Ecuador and Italy earthquakes in 2016, the value-added products were provided to civil protection authorities in order to understand the extent of the affected areas and better focus their activities during the emergency.

Furthermore, InSAR measurements have been validated against GNSS measurements and GPS velocities over California (US) and part of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey). Concerning active faults, the Pilot has started mapping the Sagaing fault (Myanmar) and the San Ramon fault (Chile) using tri-stereo Pleiades imagery. 

The Seismic Hazards Pilot closely collaborated with the Geohazards Exploitation Platform  (GEP) activity originated by ESA to directly support pilot users exploiting satellite data to assess seismic hazards and in particular users of the GSNL community. The GEP is focusing on the following priorities: support data storage and dissemination; provide hosted (e.g. cloud) processing for geohazard assessment e.g. terrain motion monitoring based on InSAR or stereo-optical data; support collaborative work (i.e. sharing pilot results) and community building. Since March 2015, the GEP has been made available to the geohazards community and 61 users worldwide are already on board including 5 specialists from the CEOS Seismic Hazards and Volcano pilots. It allows users to access and exploit large collections of ENVISAT, ERS, Copernicus Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data hosted in the ESA clusters and in ESA’s Virtual Archive. In addition, users from the Seismic Hazards and Volcano Pilots can further access data collections of ALOS-2, Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X data contributing to the pilots.

The CEOS DRM group also provides a mechanism to gather input from the user community concerning observational strategies to support their thematic priorities. For instance, to support Objective A) the Seismic pilot has elaborated the mask of tectonic areas (regions that are deforming above a threshold rate of 10 nanostrains per year, taken from the Global Strain Rate Model v2.0 (http://gsrm2.unavco.org/)).

Seismic Risks Pilot Overview, Final ReportAnnexes

The GSNL Event Supersites and the Seismic Hazards Pilot Objective C

 

GSNL Event Supersite

CEOS Seismic Pilot – Obj C

Purpose

Improve the scientific understanding of source, processes and effects of a major earthquake, integrating in situ and satellite data to provide information to local Users for situational awareness.

Demonstrate the  use of satellite EO data for the rapid generation of advanced science products to support in the interpretation of moderate to large earthquakes.

Event

Earthquakes which have particular relevance in terms of size (normally with M > 7), impact (e.g. affecting densely populated areas), scientific interest.

To become an Event Supersite, an earthquake must be proposed by the scientific community.

The Seismic Pilot normally focuses on events with magnitudes  between 5.8 and 7 which are not eligible as Event Supersites because they do not match the GSNL criteria or because they are  of  mainly local interest.  

Users

  • The global geohazard scientific community
  • Research institutes with a national mandate to support disaster management agencies
  • The scientific partners of the Seismic Pilot
  • National & regional agencies involved in DRR, and national & local authorities with a disaster management mandate

Data Access & Products

In situ and satellite data are licensed to the GSNL scientific community. Scientific.products must be shared openly, with a license allowing re-use for non commercial purposes.

Data can be accessed by registered members of the CEOS thematic teams. Products encouraged to be shared, but no strict rule on sharing.

Learn more: http://www.earthobservations.org/gsnl.php